Enzymes associated with anti-inflammatory potentialities of purified terpenoid extracts from the selected sea weeds
Keywords:Red algae, Inflammation, Nitric oxide inhibition, Terpenoids, Cytokine mediators, Enzymes
Introduction: Macrophages are phagocytic WBCs involved in the immune defense and will be activated during inflammatory disorders. The synthesis of cytokines and mediators, particularly nitric oxide (NO) is triggered by the macrophage activator. NO induces many biological events. Therefore, NO regulation is proven to be potential for exploring anti-inflammatory drugs. Aim: The anti-inflammatory action of the purified terpenoid extracts from red algae such as Hypnea musciformis, Gracilaria dura and Kappaphycus alvarezii on LPS induced RAW 264.7 macrophages on lipoxygenase, cyclooxygenase, hyaluronidase, xanthine oxidase and myeloperoxidase inhibitory effects were evaluated. Methods: The methanolic extract of the sea weeds were subjected to silica gel column chromatography and the fraction was further subjected to GC-MS analysis. Then, the potentiality of the purified terpenoid extracts to inhibit various inflammation causing enzymes such as COX, LOX, hyaluronidase, xanthineoxidase and myeloperoxidase were carried out. Findings: The terpenoid extracts reduced the enzyme activities in a dose dependent manner as compared to control group. The extracts inhibited xanthine oxidase activity effectively at 250 µg/ml i.e., a maximum inhibitory activity of 62.1% as compared to the standard drug, allopurinol. The extract significantly inhibited lipoxygenase activity, with highest inhibitory activity at 100 µg/ml. The nitric acid synthesis was reduced to 8.5 µM by Hypnea musciformis. Conclusion: The present study revealed that the purified terpenoid extracts from H. musciformis exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activities followed by G. dura and K. alvarezii via regulating the anti-inflammatory enzymes. These findings provide justification for the traditional use of the red algae in inflammatory conditions.
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